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Hypertrophy is, by definition, the enlargement of an organ or tissue by increasing the size of its cells. Not to be confused with hyperplasia, the process of increasing the number of cells, hypertrophy is the process of increasing the size of the cells that are already there
To make the muscles grow, two things must happen : stimulation and repair. Sleeping cells called satellite cells, which exist between the outer membranes and the basal ones of a muscle fiber, are activated by trauma, damage or injury - all possible responses to the stress of weight training. A response of the immune system is activated which leads to inflammation, to the natural process of cleaning and repair that takes place at the cellular level.
At the same time, a hormonal response is activated that causes the release of growth factor, cortisol and testosterone. These hormones help regulate cellular activity. Growth factors help stimulate muscle hypertrophy while testosterone increases protein synthesis. This process leads to the multiplication of satellite cells and their daughter cells migrate to the damaged tissue. Here, they merge with the skeletal muscles and give their nuclei to the muscle fibers helping them to thicken and grow. The result, in simple English: larger muscles with improved tolerance of larger loads.