The main parameters to keep in mind for effective programming are:
intensity, volume, frequency and density:
Intensity : Organic and muscular commitment with respect to the maximum possible performance (quality). It can be referred to the percentage of kilograms used compared to the ceiling in a given year, to the number of possible repetitions of the gesture in a given time, to the speed of movement in the race, to the height exceeded in the jumps etc;
Volume : Number of stimuli related to the single exercise or the whole training session (quantity). It refers to a homogeneous sum of loads such as: number of kilograms lifted, number of repetitions of a gesture, number of series or groups, distance traveled in races, etc .;
Density: Relationship between execution and recovery time. It is expressed in time values or in percentage with respect to the series of the single exercise or of the entire training session;
Frequency: Number of times the same stimulus is used in the unit of time taken into consideration (days, weeks, etc.);
With regard to the structuring of the programming it is necessary to first clarify the meaning of some expressions like microcycle, mesocycle and macrocycle:
represents the overall sports programming, aimed at achieving the final goal consisting of the various stages that are reached at the end of each mesocycle. Its duration varies from a few months to a year.
Mesocycle: includes the micro cycles necessary to obtain a first goal in the short term. It is usually programmed to exploit the effects of training, but without stressing the body too much. In this way it is possible to positively repeat the mesocycle inside a macrocycle. This period is also called the functional cycle, its duration goes from a few weeks to a couple of months.
Microcycle: consists of one or more finalized training session concluding micro program. Usually its duration varies from two to 10 days.
Training unit: consists of the single training session usually lasts from one to two hours.